The following animations
are based on Marcel Duchampís paintings Chocolate Grinder, No. 1,
1913 and Chocolate Grinder, No. 2, 1914, both at the Philadelphia
Museum of Art. Duchamp based these images on a machine he saw in a confectionary
shop (Gamelin's) in Rouen. These images are significant to Duchampís oeuvre
because they prefigure the Large Glass (his most renowned work)
through clarity of drawing, observance of perspective and the incorporation
of mechanism and rotation.
image for video (QT 0.5MB)
Animation - Copyright 1999 Stuart Smith/Mark Jones
I have been analyzing
Duchampís manipulation of perspective as a research topic for an MPhil/PHD
at Manchester Metropolitan University. This research has involved visiting
chocolate manufacturers to see similar machines working and correspondence
with a number of eminent Duchamp scholars. My aim is to clarify whether
Duchamp has, as he claimed, reinvented perspective in the 20th century.
The research involves
practical creative work, producing measured perspectives, 3D models and
computer animations in conjunction with Ian Marland at British Aerospace,
The animation in red
and white checker board is one of six produced by Stuart Smith that is
speculating on the motion of the grinder. The other animation, created
by Julian Baum, is a simulation of the grinder based on Duchampís notes
in the Green book.